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Breast Cancer If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with breast cancer, it's important to understand some basics: What is breast cancer and how does it happen? Usually breast cancer either begins in the cells of the lobules, which are the milk-producing glands, or the ducts, the passages that drain milk from the lobules to the nipple. Less commonly, breast cancer can begin in the stromal tissues, which include the fatty and fibrous connective tissues of the breast. Over time, cancer cells can invade nearby healthy breast tissue and make their way into the underarm lymph nodes, small organs that filter out foreign substances in the body. If cancer cells get into the lymph nodes, they then have a pathway into other parts of the body. The breast cancer’s stage refers to how far the cancer cells have spread beyond the original tumor. Breast cancer is always caused by a genetic abnormality (a “mistake” in the genetic material). However, only 5-10% of cancers are due to an abnormality inherited from your mother or father. Instead, 85-90% of breast cancers are due to genetic abnormalities that happen as a result of the aging process and the “wear and tear” of life in general. There are steps every person can take to help the body stay as healthy as possible, such as eating a balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, limiting alcohol, and exercising regularly. While these may have some impact on your risk of getting breast cancer, they cannot eliminate the risk. Developing breast cancer is not your or anyone's fault. Feeling guilty, or telling yourself that breast cancer happened because of something you or anyone else did, is not productive. Symptoms of Breast Cancer Initially, breast cancer may not cause any symptoms. A lump may be too small for you to feel or to cause any unusual changes you can notice on your own. Often, an abnormal area turns up on a screening mammogram (X-ray of the breast), which leads to further testing. In some cases, however, the first sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast that you or your doctor can feel. A lump that is painless, hard, and has uneven edges is more likely to be cancer. But sometimes cancers can be tender, soft, and rounded. So it's important to have anything unusual checked by your doctor. According to the American Cancer Society, any of the following unusual changes in the breast can be a symptom of breast cancer: • swelling of all or part of the breast • skin irritation or dimpling • breast pain • nipple pain or the nipple turning inward • redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin • a nipple discharge other than breast milk • a lump in the underarm area These changes also can be signs of less serious conditions that are not cancerous, such as an infection or a cyst. It’s important to get any breast changes checked out promptly by a doctor. Breast cancer treatment in Jalndhar
TESTICULAR CANCER Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination. Symptoms • A n enlarged testicle or a small lump or area of hardness are the first signs of testicular cancer • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts • Back pain Cancer usually affects only one testicle. Causes It's not clear what causes testicular cancer in most cases. Doctors know that testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle become altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes some cells develop abnormalities, causing this growth to get out of control — these cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells form a mass in the testicle. Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't known. Risk factors Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. • Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. • Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. • Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age. • Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy. TESTICULAR CANCER TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR
ENDOMETRIOSIS Endometriosis is a painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs. With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other. Endometriosis can cause pain — sometimes severe — especially during your period. Fertility problems also may develop. Fortunately, effective treatments are available. Symptoms The primary symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, often associated with your menstrual period. Although many women experience cramping during their menstrual period, women with endometriosis typically describe menstrual pain that's far worse than usual. They also tend to report that the pain increases over time. Common signs and symptoms of endometriosis may include: • Pelvic pain • Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) • Pain with intercourse • Pain with bowel movements or urination. • Excessive bleeding • Infertility. Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking treatment for infertility. • fatigue • diarrhea • constipation • bloating or nausea, especially during menstrual periods. The severity of your pain isn't necessarily a reliable indicator of the extent of the condition. Some women with mild endometriosis have intense pain, while others with advanced endometriosis may have little pain or even no pain at all. Endometriosis is sometimes mistaken for other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It may be confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that causes bouts of diarrhea, constipation and abdominal cramping. IBS can accompany endometriosis, which can complicate the diagnosis. Causes Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include: • Retrograde menstruation. In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These displaced endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle. • Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what's known as the "induction theory, " experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells — cells that line the inner side of your abdomen — into endometrial cells. • Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial cell implants during puberty. • Surgical scar implantation. After a surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision. • Endometrial cells transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body. • Immune system disorder. It's possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that's growing outside the uterus. Risk factors Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as: • Never giving birth • Starting your period at an early age • Going through menopause at an older age • Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days • Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces • Low body mass index • Alcohol consumption • One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis • Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body • Uterine abnormalities Endometriosis usually develops several years after the onset of menstruation (menarche). Signs and symptoms of endometriosis end temporarily with pregnancy and end permanently with menopause, unless you're taking estrogen. Complications • Impaired fertility. Diagnosis • Pelvic exam • Transvaginal ultrasound • Laparoscopy. Treatment • Medications : Pain medications • Hormone therapy • Progestin therapy • Surgery ENDOMETRIOSIS TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR
STAPLED HEMORRHOIDS Stapled hemorrhoidectomy, also known as stapled hemorrhoidopexy, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of abnormally enlarged hemorrhoidal tissue, followed by the repositioning of the remaining hemorrhoidal tissue back to its normal anatomic position. Severe cases of hemorrhoidal prolapse will normally require surgery. stapled hemorrhoids is a minimally invasive procedure that repositions the Hemorrhoids in to the rectum. Studies have shown that stapled hemorrhoidopexy may: *Casuse less pain *Causes less prostoperative bleeding *Allow a faster return to work than conventional hemorrhoidectomy. Prolapsed Hemorrhoids Repositioned Hemorrhoids excess tissue removed Stapled Hemorrhoids hospital in jalandhar Stapled Hemorrhoids doctor in jalandhar Medicines regarding stapled Hemorrhoids in jalandhar
Cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to various parts of the body. Cancer can be prevented or helped by adding super fruits (kiwi, apple, pomegranate, goji berries, noni , acai berries, strawberries , grapes , soursop as well as the ones below) to our diet. Blueberries contain pterostilbene , anthocyanins , proanthocyanidins , resveratol , flavonols , and tannins , which inhibit mechanisms of cancer cell development. Dragonfruit is rich in phytoalbumin which help carcinogenic free radical formation in the body. best cancer hospital in jalandhar cancer specialist doctor in jalandhar
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