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WHAT IS CANCER Our body has different types of cells which grow and multiply several times in a day to maintain normal function. Occasionally this cell division is affected and creates a wrong cell or an abnormal cell, these divide further in an uncontrolled way affecting the other parts of the body. These cells which divide abnormally are called cancers. These cells can locally infiltrate the adjacent organs or invade the blood and lymphatic system and cause spread or metastasis. Cancer can occur in almost all parts of the body and they are categorized mainly from the cell in which they begin. Cancer arising from epithelium or covering of an organ - CARCINOMA Cancer arising from connective or supportive cells (E.g.: bone, muscle, ) - SARCOMA Cancer arising from cells which produce blood(bone marrow) - LEUKAEMIA Cancer arising from cells of immune system - LYMPHOMA and MYELOMA Cancer arising from nervous system - ASTROCYTOMA, GLIOMA HOW DOES CANCER START By damage to DNA - the genetic material in the cell By interfering with cell division and other controlling mechanisms of the cell. Damage to DNA can be caused by certain hydrocarbons, chemicals which are present in tobacco for example, radiation or due to certain chemical action in our body when the built in protection mechanism fails in our body. Certain substances for example stimulate cell division causing damage to DNA and causing mutation. Any factor which leads to the above can produce cancer. Best Cancer Hospital in Jalandhar
Gynecologist Dr Ruchi Bhargava is a gynecologist medical doctor that specializes in women's reproductive systems. Separate doctors that specialize in treating women have existed for centuries, and these ancient specialists are the forefathers of today's gynecological doctors and researchers. Gynecologists are often at the forefront of debates over women's health and healthcare. While a general physician may be able to pinpoint and treat minor women's health issues, the expert opinions of gynecologists are absolutely necessary when it comes to certain aspects of women's health. Experienced gynecologist doctor in jalandhar Topmost gynecologist doctor in jalandhar
Oncologist Oncology is the study of cancer. An oncologist is a doctor in Jalandhar Dr Rupinder Bhargava who treats cancer. Usually, an oncologist manages a person’s care and treatment once he or she is diagnosed with cancer. The field of oncology has three major areas: medical, surgical, and radiation. A medical oncologist in Jalandhar treats cancer using chemotherapy or other medications, such as targeted therapy. A surgical oncologist in Jalandhar removes the tumor and nearby tissue during an operation. He or she also performs certain types of biopsies. A radiation oncologist in Jalandhar treats cancer using radiation therapy. Other types of oncologists include the following: A gynecologic oncologist in Jalandhar treats gynecologic cancers, such as uterine cancer and cervical cancer. A pediatric oncologist treats cancer in children. Some types of cancer occur most often in children and teenagers, such as certain brain tumors, leukemia, osteosarcoma, and Ewing’s sarcoma. But they sometimes occur in adults. In these cases, an adult may decide to work with a pediatric oncologist. A hematologist-oncologist diagnoses and treats blood cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. The role of the oncologist An oncologist oversees a patient’s care from the cancer diagnosis throughout the course of the disease. The oncologist’s role includes the following: Explaining the cancer diagnosis and stage to the patient Discussing all relevant treatment options and the oncologist’s recommendations Delivering high-quality, compassionate care Helping the patient manage cancer-related pain and other symptoms or treatment side effects A person with cancer is often treated by a team of oncologists who specialize in different areas of oncology. This approach is helpful because cancer treatment frequently involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Other medical professionals may also be involved in a patient’s care: Oncology doctor in Jalandhar
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a medical diagnostic procedure employed to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. The colposcope magnifies, or enlarges, the image of the outer portion of the cervix. The instrument, colposcope provides an enlarged view of the areas, helping the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal tissue and take biopsies for further pathological examination. Conditions: Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions can be detected with this examination. The main goal of colposcopy is to detect precancerous lesions early and treating them and thereby preventing cervical cancer. Colposcopic examination further investigates a cytological abnormality on the pap smears of patients. After a colposcopy decisions can be made about your ongoing treatment. Other indications for colposcopy are HIV infection, changes in normal appearance of cervix or for the forensic examination. It functions as a lighted binocular microscope to magnify the view of the cervix, vagina, and vulvar surface.Low power may be used to obtain a general impression of the surface architecture. Medium and high powers are used to evaluate the vagina and cervix. The higher powers give the idea of certain vascular patterns that may indicate the presence of more advanced pre-cancerous or cancerous lesions. Various light filters are available to highlight different aspects of the surface of the cervix. After a complete examination, the colposcopist determines the areas with the highest degree of visible abnormality and may obtain biopsies from these areas using a long biopsy instrument. Adequate follow-up is critical to the success of this procedure. Procedure: During the colposcopy, the gynecologist focuses on the areas of the cervix where light does not pass through. Abnormal cervical changes are seen as white areas, the whiter the area, the worse the cervical dysplasia. Abnormal vascular changes are also apparent through the colposcope. A tissue sample or biopsy is taken from the whitest abnormal areas and sent to the lab for further evaluation. A special instrument called a speculum is inserted into your vagina. This will hold the walls of your vagina slightly apart so that the cervix is visible. The colposcope does not go into your vagina, but is positioned between the legs to allow the doctor to examine the cervix. The colposcope is like a microscope with a light on the end, at the opening of the vagina and the doctor will then look through the colposcope to carefully examine the cervix. In this way, the doctor can see the location and pattern of any abnormal cells. The examination usually starts with a repeat Pap smear. The first smear is taken from the outside of the cervix using a spatula. The second is taken from the canal of the cervix using a special brush. After taking the Pap smear, the specialist will dab the cervix with very mild acetic acid (vinegar) solution. This will help to identify any abnormal cells. Complications: Significant complications from a colposcopy are not common, but may include bleeding, infection at the biopsy site or endometrium, and failure to identify the lesion. colposcopy in Jalandhar Gyne Doctor in Jalandhar
oncology The field of oncology has three major areas: medical, surgical, and radiation. A medical oncologist treats cancer using chemotherapy or other medications, such as targeted therapy. A surgical oncologist removes the tumor and nearby tissue during an operation. He or she also performs certain types of biopsies. A radiation oncologist treats cancer using radiation therapy. oncology hospital in jalandhar oncology treatment in jalandhar
Obstetrics and Gynecology Obstetrics and gynecology are medical specialties that focus on two different aspects of the female reproductive system. At Virginia Beach OBGYN we provide care to women in all phases of their lives whether they are having a baby or are past menopause. Obstetrics deals with the care of the pregnant women, the unborn baby, labor and delivery and the immediate period following childbirth. The obstetrician ensures that mother and child get the best prenatal care to ensure labor and delivery is accomplished without complications and that should intervention be needed, it is done quickly and safely. Gynecology deals with any ailment concerning the reproductive organs; uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ovaries and vagina. A gynecologist may also treat related problems in the bowel, bladder and urinary system since these are closely related to female reproductive organs. Obstetrics and Gynecology doctor in jalandhar Best Obstetrics and Gynecology hospital in jalandhar
oncology The field of oncology has three major areas: medical, surgical, and radiation. >A medical oncologist treats cancer using chemotherapy or other medications, such as targeted therapy. >A surgical oncologist removes the tumor and nearby tissue during an operation. He or she also performs certain types of biopsies. >A radiation oncologist treats cancer using radiation therapy. Dr. Rupinder Bhargava oncologist in Jalandhar available at Bhargava Hospital Advanced Gyne Surgery Cancer Center
Prognosis Proper counseling of women with endometriosis requires attention to several aspects of the disorder. Of primary importance is the initial operative staging of the disease to obtain adequate information on which to base future decisions about therapy. The woman's symptoms and desire for childbearing dictate appropriate therapy. Not all therapy works for all women. Some women have recurrences after surgery or pseudo-menopause. In most cases, treatment will give women significant relief from pelvic pain and assist them in achieving pregnancy. The underlying process that causes endometriosis may not cease after surgical or medical intervention. Studies have shown that endometriosis recurs at a rate of 20 to 40 percent within five years following conservative surgery, unless hysterectomy is performed or menopause reached. Monitoring of women consists of periodic clinical examinations and sonography . Vaginal childbirth decreases recurrence of endometriosis. In contrast, endometriosis recurrence rates have been shown to be higher in women who have not given birth vaginally, such as in Cesarean section.
ENDOMETRIOSIS Endometriosis is a painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs. With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other. Endometriosis can cause pain — sometimes severe — especially during your period. Fertility problems also may develop. Fortunately, effective treatments are available. Symptoms The primary symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, often associated with your menstrual period. Although many women experience cramping during their menstrual period, women with endometriosis typically describe menstrual pain that's far worse than usual. They also tend to report that the pain increases over time. Common signs and symptoms of endometriosis may include: • Pelvic pain • Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) • Pain with intercourse • Pain with bowel movements or urination. • Excessive bleeding • Infertility. Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking treatment for infertility. • fatigue • diarrhea • constipation • bloating or nausea, especially during menstrual periods. The severity of your pain isn't necessarily a reliable indicator of the extent of the condition. Some women with mild endometriosis have intense pain, while others with advanced endometriosis may have little pain or even no pain at all. Endometriosis is sometimes mistaken for other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It may be confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that causes bouts of diarrhea, constipation and abdominal cramping. IBS can accompany endometriosis, which can complicate the diagnosis. Causes Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include: • Retrograde menstruation. In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These displaced endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle. • Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what's known as the "induction theory, " experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells — cells that line the inner side of your abdomen — into endometrial cells. • Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial cell implants during puberty. • Surgical scar implantation. After a surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision. • Endometrial cells transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body. • Immune system disorder. It's possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that's growing outside the uterus. Risk factors Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as: • Never giving birth • Starting your period at an early age • Going through menopause at an older age • Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days • Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces • Low body mass index • Alcohol consumption • One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis • Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body • Uterine abnormalities Endometriosis usually develops several years after the onset of menstruation (menarche). Signs and symptoms of endometriosis end temporarily with pregnancy and end permanently with menopause, unless you're taking estrogen. Complications • Impaired fertility. Diagnosis • Pelvic exam • Transvaginal ultrasound • Laparoscopy. Treatment • Medications : Pain medications • Hormone therapy • Progestin therapy • Surgery ENDOMETRIOSIS TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR