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STAGES OF BREAST CANCER No two breast cancers are same. These are staged from stage I to IV according to extent of spread of tumor.Stage I & II tumors are early breast cancers with high probability of disease being limited to breast. Stage III generally tumor is big or ulcerated with spread to armpit. Stage IV disease has spread to other organs of body and is beyond cure though life can be prolonged and quality of life can be improved. So, no two cancers are same, their treatment may be different and their chances of cure are different. Let us understand the ailment in more details : >Clinical breast examination >Methods of treating breast cancer >Protect yourself from breast cancer >Clinical breast examination Your yearly checkup should include a clinical breast examination preferably by cancer specialist. This is to ensure that cancer is detected early. Starting at age 20, you should have a clinical breast examination every 1 - 3 years. After age 40, have clinical breast examination yearly. If you are at increased risk of breast cancer, you may need more frequent examinations. RISK FACTORS OF BREAST CANCER :Age above 50 years or postmenopausal . :A family history of breast cancer. :Having had no pregnancies or a first pregnancy after age 30. :Obesity :Heavy alcohol use .
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a medical diagnostic procedure employed to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. The colposcope magnifies, or enlarges, the image of the outer portion of the cervix. The instrument, colposcope provides an enlarged view of the areas, helping the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal tissue and take biopsies for further pathological examination. Conditions: Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions can be detected with this examination. The main goal of colposcopy is to detect precancerous lesions early and treating them and thereby preventing cervical cancer. Colposcopic examination further investigates a cytological abnormality on the pap smears of patients. After a colposcopy decisions can be made about your ongoing treatment. Other indications for colposcopy are HIV infection, changes in normal appearance of cervix or for the forensic examination. It functions as a lighted binocular microscope to magnify the view of the cervix, vagina, and vulvar surface.Low power may be used to obtain a general impression of the surface architecture. Medium and high powers are used to evaluate the vagina and cervix. The higher powers give the idea of certain vascular patterns that may indicate the presence of more advanced pre-cancerous or cancerous lesions. Various light filters are available to highlight different aspects of the surface of the cervix. After a complete examination, the colposcopist determines the areas with the highest degree of visible abnormality and may obtain biopsies from these areas using a long biopsy instrument. Adequate follow-up is critical to the success of this procedure. Procedure: During the colposcopy, the gynecologist focuses on the areas of the cervix where light does not pass through. Abnormal cervical changes are seen as white areas, the whiter the area, the worse the cervical dysplasia. Abnormal vascular changes are also apparent through the colposcope. A tissue sample or biopsy is taken from the whitest abnormal areas and sent to the lab for further evaluation. A special instrument called a speculum is inserted into your vagina. This will hold the walls of your vagina slightly apart so that the cervix is visible. The colposcope does not go into your vagina, but is positioned between the legs to allow the doctor to examine the cervix. The colposcope is like a microscope with a light on the end, at the opening of the vagina and the doctor will then look through the colposcope to carefully examine the cervix. In this way, the doctor can see the location and pattern of any abnormal cells. The examination usually starts with a repeat Pap smear. The first smear is taken from the outside of the cervix using a spatula. The second is taken from the canal of the cervix using a special brush. After taking the Pap smear, the specialist will dab the cervix with very mild acetic acid (vinegar) solution. This will help to identify any abnormal cells. Complications: Significant complications from a colposcopy are not common, but may include bleeding, infection at the biopsy site or endometrium, and failure to identify the lesion. colposcopy in Jalandhar Gyne Doctor in Jalandhar
TESTICULAR CANCER Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination. Symptoms • A n enlarged testicle or a small lump or area of hardness are the first signs of testicular cancer • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts • Back pain Cancer usually affects only one testicle. Causes It's not clear what causes testicular cancer in most cases. Doctors know that testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle become altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes some cells develop abnormalities, causing this growth to get out of control — these cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells form a mass in the testicle. Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't known. Risk factors Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. • Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. • Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. • Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age. • Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy. TESTICULAR CANCER TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR
BREAST CANCER SYMPTOMS If a clinical examination reveals a breast change, you may have other tests to find out more.These tests may include: Mammography/MammoSonography Biopsy Mammography is low dose x-rays of breasts. It is used to screen for problems in women with no symptoms. A mammogram can show changes to small to feel. Have your first mammogram by age 40. After that, have a mammogram every year. In high risk individuals may need to start having yearly mammograms earlier. Mammography surgeon in Jalandhar DR Rupinder Bhargava Near model town .
Prognosis Proper counseling of women with endometriosis requires attention to several aspects of the disorder. Of primary importance is the initial operative staging of the disease to obtain adequate information on which to base future decisions about therapy. The woman's symptoms and desire for childbearing dictate appropriate therapy. Not all therapy works for all women. Some women have recurrences after surgery or pseudo-menopause. In most cases, treatment will give women significant relief from pelvic pain and assist them in achieving pregnancy. The underlying process that causes endometriosis may not cease after surgical or medical intervention. Studies have shown that endometriosis recurs at a rate of 20 to 40 percent within five years following conservative surgery, unless hysterectomy is performed or menopause reached. Monitoring of women consists of periodic clinical examinations and sonography . Vaginal childbirth decreases recurrence of endometriosis. In contrast, endometriosis recurrence rates have been shown to be higher in women who have not given birth vaginally, such as in Cesarean section.
Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer:- 1. Clinical Examination 2. Lump in the breast or abnormal screening results 3. Test of breast tissue is the only way to know if the patients has Breast Cancer 4. Breast tissue needed for confirmation. Needle biopsy of Breast tissue are common and causes little pain 5. Tests that take pictures of our body can tell if the cancer has spread like ultrasound of abdomen, X-ray of chest, Whole body PET Scan 6. Tumor tests can tell if the hormone or her 2 Protein help in cancer growth 7. Grouped into stage 1-4 based on how likely they are to act 8. Early stages of Breast Cancer are more likely to be cured Breast Cancer Treatment in Jalandhar cancer specialist doctor in Jalandhar
Precautions to be taken to avoid breast cancer • Avoid high fat diet. • Avoid becoming overweight. • Avoid smoking and alcohol. • Avoid hormone replacement therapy. • Breast feed your babies for as long as possible. • Avoid first pregnancy at late age (˃30 years). • Get genetic testing if your close relative (mother, sister) has breast cancer. • Self-breast examination (SBE) is the key to detect any lump in the initial stages. Breast cancer treatment In Jalandhar Breast Cancer specialist in Jalandhar
Precautions to be taken to avoid cancer of the skin • Dark coloured moles and warts that become itchy or bleed or ulcerate should be removed. • Recurrent blisters on the lip should be carefully examined. • Fair-skinned people should avoid overexposure to direct sun-rays. • Keep skin clean at all times. Cancer control • Most important is prevention of cancer by change of lifestyles. • Complete annual physical examination should be done regularly. Women over 35 years of age should be examined once a year. • Prompt visit to physician when suspicious signs or symptoms appear. • Confirming diagnosis at the earliest followed by adequate treatment. • Educate yourself. Knowledge of the character of cancer, its causes, mode of spread are critical • Value early diagnosis and adequate treatment as a means of protection. Skin Cancer Treatment In Jalandhar Best Cancer doctor In Jalandhar
Fibroid Uterus Uterine Fibroids are non-cancerous tumours in the uterus. This is a most common health problem among women of child bearing age. Generally the complaint of uterine fibroid comes between the age group of 30 to 45 years. This benign tumour can cause pain, excessive menstrual bleeding, infertility. It can vary in size, from that of a few mm to as large as a melon. Small fibroids may not need treatment while large fibroid can be treated only through surgery. Very large fibroids as large as water-melon are not very common. Some women have no symptoms to indicate that they have fibroids, and will find out only on a routine ultrasound or gynaecological examination. Fibroids affect at least 20% of all women during their life. Overweight and obese women are at significantly higher risk of developing fibroids, compared to women of normal weight. Symptoms of Fibroids Anaemia (as a result of heavy periods) Discomfort in the lower abdomen (especially if fibroids are large) Retention/frequent urination Heavy painful periods Painful sex Swelling in the lower abdomen (especially if fibroids are large) Other symptoms may include: Pregnancy problems Fertility problems Repeated miscarriages A fibroid can sometimes degenerate causing fever and severe pain. During a woman's reproductive years her oestrogen and progesterone levels are high. When oestrogen levels are high, especially during pregnancy, fibroids tend to swell. When oestrogen levels are low fibroids may shrink as can be seen after menopause. Gyne doctor in Jalandhar
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