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TESTICULAR CANCER Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination. Symptoms • A n enlarged testicle or a small lump or area of hardness are the first signs of testicular cancer • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts • Back pain Cancer usually affects only one testicle. Causes It's not clear what causes testicular cancer in most cases. Doctors know that testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle become altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes some cells develop abnormalities, causing this growth to get out of control — these cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells form a mass in the testicle. Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't known. Risk factors Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. • Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. • Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. • Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age. • Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy. TESTICULAR CANCER TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR
Hernia Hernia is an abnormal protrusion of an organ through normal or abnormal opening of the walls of cavity containing it. Hernia are if various types, External or internal Simple or complicated Congenital or acquired Unilateral or Bilateral The commonest Hernias are Inguinal or Groin Hernia Incisional Hiatus Hernia Femoral Hernia The causes are: Congenital Increased abdominal pressure in chronic cough Constipation prostatism Weakness of abdominal wall due to appendix surgery or old age Hernia diagnosis are: Pain at the site of hernia Burning sensation at the site Protrusion of internal organs on coughing and its disappearance on lying down Redness and increased swelling when the hernia gets complicated. Vomiting Complications of Hernia Pain Irreducibility Obstruction Strangulation Hernia Treatment In Jalandhar Hernia specialist Doctor in Jalandhar
Caesarean As per studies in science Women who have had a Caesarean for any reason are somewhat less likely to become pregnant or give birth again as compared to women who have previously only delivered vaginally. Women who had just one previous Caesarean section are more likely to have problems with their second birth. Delivery after previous Caesarean section is by either of two main options: • Vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) • Elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS) Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous Caesarean section. Criteria for making VBAC include that the previous Caesarean section should be a low transverse one. VBAC (compared to ERCS) confers a higher risk for mainly uterine rupture and perinatal death of the child. Furthermore, 20% to 40% of attempts at VBAC end up resulting in Caesarean section being performed anyway, with greater risks of complications in an emergent repeat Caesarean section than in an ERCS. On the other hand, VBAC confers less maternal morbidity and a decreased risk of complications in future pregnancies than ERCS. The international healthcare community has considered the rate of 10% and 15% to be ideal for caesarean sections since 1985. The countries which report overuse of this procedure are not finding ways to decrease use of the procedure as much as they would like. Caesarean section is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby. C-sections are also carried out for personal preference but this is not recommended. Elective cesareans at 38 weeks showed increased health complications in the newborn. Planned caesarean sections also known as elective caesarean sections should not be scheduled before 39 weeks gestational age unless there is a medical reason to do so. Normal Delivery in Jalandhar Gynecologist in Jalandhar
STAGES OF BREAST CANCER No two breast cancers are same. These are staged from stage I to IV according to extent of spread of tumor.Stage I & II tumors are early breast cancers with high probability of disease being limited to breast. Stage III generally tumor is big or ulcerated with spread to armpit. Stage IV disease has spread to other organs of body and is beyond cure though life can be prolonged and quality of life can be improved. So, no two cancers are same, their treatment may be different and their chances of cure are different. Let us understand the ailment in more details : >Clinical breast examination >Methods of treating breast cancer >Protect yourself from breast cancer >Clinical breast examination Your yearly checkup should include a clinical breast examination preferably by cancer specialist. This is to ensure that cancer is detected early. Starting at age 20, you should have a clinical breast examination every 1 - 3 years. After age 40, have clinical breast examination yearly. If you are at increased risk of breast cancer, you may need more frequent examinations. RISK FACTORS OF BREAST CANCER :Age above 50 years or postmenopausal . :A family history of breast cancer. :Having had no pregnancies or a first pregnancy after age 30. :Obesity :Heavy alcohol use .
CLINICAL FEATURES The conditions may not produce any clinical manifestation. GYNECOLOGICAL : INFERTILITY AND DYSPAREUNLA are often related in association with vaginal septum. : DYSMENORRHEA in bicornuate uterus or due to cyrptomenorrhea ( pent up menstrual blood in rudimentary horn). : MENSTRUAL DISORDERS ( menorrhagia, crymtomenorrhea) are seen. Menorrhagia is due to increased surface area in bicornuate uterus. OBSTETRICAL : MIDTRIMESTER MISCARRIAGE which may be recurrent. : Rudimentary HORN PREGNANCY may occur due to transperitoneal migration of sperm or ovum from the opposite side, cornual pregnancy (ectopic) inevitably ends in rupture around 16th week. Dr Ruche Bhargava Gynecological in Jalandhar
Why thyroidectomy is done? A thyroidectomy may be recommended for conditions such as: Thyroid cancer. Cancer is the most common reason for thyroidectomy. If you have thyroid cancer, removing most, if not all, of your thyroid will likely be a treatment option. Thyroid treatment in Jalandhar Goitre (Noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid Removing all or part of your thyroid gland is an option if you have a large goitre that is uncomfortable or causes difficulty breathing or swallowing or, in some cases, if the goitre is causing hyperthyroidism. Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. If you have problems with anti-thyroid drugs and don't want radioactive iodine therapy, thyroidectomy may be an option. Thyroidectomy specialist in Jalandhar Risks Thyroidectomy is generally a safe procedure. But as with any surgery, thyroidectomy carries a risk of complications. Potential complications include: Bleeding Infection Airway obstruction caused by bleeding Permanent hoarse or weak voice due to nerve damage Damage to the four small glands located behind your thyroid (parathyroid glands), which can lead to hypoparathyroidism, resulting in abnormally low calcium levels and an increased amount of phosphorus in your blood. What you can expect Before the procedure Surgeons perform thyroidectomy during general anaesthesia. You may have a drain under the incision in your neck. This drain is usually removed the morning after surgery. After a thyroidectomy, you may experience neck pain and temporarily hoarse or weak voice. You'll be able to eat and drink as usual after surgery. Depending on the type of surgery you had, you may be able to go home the day of your procedure or your doctor may recommend you stay overnight in the hospital which provides you best medical services in the hospital for patients in Jalandhar . When you go home, you can usually return to your regular activities. Wait at least 10 days to two weeks before doing anything vigorous. Results The long-term effects of thyroidectomy depend on how much of the thyroid is removed. Partial thyroidectomy If only part of your thyroid is removed, the remaining portion typically takes over the function of the entire thyroid gland, and you might not need thyroid hormone therapy. Total thyroidectomy If your entire thyroid is removed, you'll need to take a pill every day that contains the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid). This hormone replacement is identical to the hormone normally made by your thyroid gland and performs all of the same functions. Dr Rupinder Bhargava Surgical Oncologist BHARGAVA ADVANCED GYNE SURGERY CANCER CENTRE In Jalandhar
Benefits of Prenatal Vitamins for Pregnant Women. 1. Prenatal Vitamins are designed to support childbearing and are essential for babies as well as moms. 2. Calcium is another significant content in prenatal vitamins. It is related with physical fetal development and maintenance of mother’s bones and muscles 3.Iron is helpful as a building block for your bady's cells.It support oxygen and nutrient transport mechanism in the baby. 4.Vitamin increased the large blood volume in the mother and growth the unborn baby. Dr Ruche Bhargava lady gynaecologist in Jalandhar
Breast health Breast health begins with a sense of what's normal for your breasts (breast awareness). For many women, breast health includes concerns about breast lumps, breast pain or nipple discharge. Know what's normal — and when to consult your doctor. WHAT ARE THE TIPS TO MAINTAIN BREAST HEALTH? To promote breast health, consider doing the following: Maintain Healthy Weight: Women who are overweight and obese have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Oestrogen-sensitive tissues in the breast are exposed to more oestrogen in obese women than those who are of a healthy weight, and this can stimulate the growth of breast cancer. In addition, women with a body mass index of 30 or higher tend to be diagnosed with a more advanced disease than women with a lower BMI. They also face lower survival rates and a greater risk of the metastasis. Maintaining a healthy weight can eliminate this preventable risk factor and help you improve your breast health. Exercise Regularly: Physical exercise can help boost your immune system, defend against obesity, and reduce levels of insulin and oestrogen in the body, all of which can help prevent breast cancer. Plus, it can help boost bone mass, which is vital for women who have undergone endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. Take Vitamins: Low vitamin D levels have been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, low levels can increase disease recurrence and lower survival rates in women with breast cancer. Getting enough sun exposure, or getting vitamin D through supplements or fortified foods, is an important step in improving your breast health. Intake of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Studies have shown that the higher the amount of omega- 3 fatty acids in the body, the lower the incidence of metastasis. Maintaining Hormone Levels: Hormones play a significant role in breast cancer. Anything that changes your hormone levels in an unnatural way, such as hormone-replacement therapy or contraceptives, can increase your risk of breast cancer because they can lead to excess oestrogen compounds. Get Regular Breast Cancer Screenings: Whether you book an appointment for a mammogram or clinical breast exam at a doctor’s office or take self-breast exams in the shower, make sure to screen for breast cancer regularly. Detecting the disease in its early stages is the number one way to increase your chances of survival. Breast Cancer specialist in Jalandhar
Breast Cancer Cancer has always been considered a disease which strikes you at later stages of your life. This holds true to a certain extent, but if we look at breast cancer, the age at which women develop breast cancer has undergone a sea change in the last two decades. An increasing number of breast cancers are detected in the 25-40 years age group. The age where one settles down, plans to have a family and is busy with raising children. India is now witnessing more and more numbers of patients being diagnosed with breast cancer to be in the younger age groups. What every woman should know Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American women. One in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer during her lifetime. But advances in breast cancer treatment mean many women can expect to beat the disease and maintain their physical appearance. Strand Center studied genes that may increase a women’s risk of suffering from breast cancer. Our scientists have identified 50 mutations (variants of a gene) in genes that are present in the Indian population, which can cause breast cancer. Some of these gene mutations have been identified earlier. Our analysis showed that there are 19 new mutations that have not been identified by other researchers. So, all in all, these gene variations have increased the chances of breast cancer amongst Indian women. Symptoms A lump in the breast Pain in armpits or breast that does not seem to be related to the woman’s menstrual period Pitting or redness of the skin of the breast A rash around (or on) one of the nipples A swelling (lump) in one of the armpits An area of thickened tissue in a breast One of the nipples has a discharge; sometimes it may contain blood The nipple changes in appearance; it may become sunken or inverted The size or the shape of the breast changes The nipple-skin or breast-skin may have started to peel, scale or flake news A successful treatment of cancer is possible, if detected at an early stage. Breast Cancer Specialist in Jalandhar Breast Cancer Treatment in Jalandhar
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