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How Much Water Should You Drink During Pregnancy? Listen carefully and you’ll hear a collective sigh of relief from pregnant women everywhere as we lay the “eight glasses of water per day” myth to rest. It has no proven benefit by itself—and no woman’s bladder, already pressured by a growing baby, welcomes two litres of water on top of the requisite milk, juice and other drinks. A pregnant woman needs, on average, approximately 10 cups (2.3 liters) of fluid per day. This includes the recommended three to four glasses of milk or calcium-fortified soy beverage. Fluid requirements can also be met Subscribe to our Pregnancy by Week newsletterYOU’RE PREGNANT! Sign up to get weekly email updates on your baby »with a glass or two of fruit or vegetable juice, herbal tea, soup, rice drink or any other non-alcoholic refreshment. Coffee and regular tea also count, in spite of their diuretic qualities, but should be consumed sparingly because of the caffeine. Drinking water—either bottled or tap water—is a great way to rehydrate during or between meals. In addition, your body will derive water from food, especially fruit, vegetables and semi-liquid foods like yogurt. To give it credit, the eight cups a day rule is helpful if it results in water replacing a habitual, equivalent intake of pop or other sweetened drink. Beware! Eight cups of “fruit punch, ” “cocktail” or soft drink might quench thirst, but they also deliver more than a cup of sugar, or about 800 empty calories. Of course, with exercise and hot weather, it is important to drink additional fluid. Make sure you carry water along with you, but don’t feel you have to be sipping constantly. For activities that last longer than one hour, take diluted juice or a sports drink. Listen to your thirst signal and enjoy a quick smoothie, a few slices of watermelon or a delicious, tall glass of water! Gyne doctor in Jalandhar Gynecologist in Jalandhar
Breast cancer Breast cancer is cancer that forms in cells of the breast. The breast consists of lobules (glands that make breast milk), ducts (small tubes that carry milk from the lobules to the nipple), fatty and connective tissue, blood vessels and lymph vessels. The milk-producing ducts and glands are the two most likely areas to develop cancerous cells. In rarer cases, breast cancer begins in fatty tissues, also known as stromal tissues. Breast cancer may also occur in surrounding lymph nodes, especially those of the underarm. The early stages of breast cancer may not have any symptoms. As the tumor grows in size, it can cause symptoms. Symptoms may include lump or thickening in the breast or underarm, change in the size or shape of the breast, nipple discharge or nipple turning inward, redness or scaling of the skin or nipple, ridges or pitting of the breast etc. Breast cancer doctor in Jalandhar Breast Cancer Treatment In Jalandhar
How to Gain Weight After Radiation Therapy Cancer therapy can be an extremely physical and emotional time for the patient. In patients with cancer of the head and neck for instance, the immune system is often not functioning properly. The immune system does not destroy cancer cells. Causes of the failure of the immune system include severe malnutrition. To exacerbate the problem, radiation can severely effect the taste buds and saliva glands. The loss of appetite, difficulties in swallowing, no taste buds and the inability to dissolve food will result in a tremendous amount of weight loss. To gain weight after radiation therapy it takes patience and focus. Some cancer patients have gone days without a meal because they simply did not think to eat. No hunger pains or cravings for food means the brain doesn’t doesn’t let us know to do so. It has to be a conscious thought to sit down and eat a meal. There are a number of things to do and eat that can help the patient to gain weight. Some are obvious but need to be mentioned none the less. 1. It is important to eat and maintain good nutrition despite changes in taste. Prepare foods that appeal to you. Try and focus on foods from the food pyramid to help with a well balance diet. 2. Use a powdered or liquid diet supplement. Available on the market also include weight gain supplements in a gel tab form, with all the nutrition needed, enhance appetite and slow down metabolism to better absorb nutrition and calories. Even if you’re not very hungry, it’s important to keep your protein and calorie intake high. A weight gain supplement in gel tab form might be the answer. Doctors have found that patients who eat well can better deal with having cancer and with the side effects of treatment. 3. Eat five or six small meals during the day rather than three large ones. Eat when you are hungry, even if it is not mealtime. Moisten food with gravies and sauces to make eating easier. Try changing the consistency of foods by adding fluids and using sauces and gravies to make them softer. 4. Change your diet and try new recipes. If you enjoy people around while eating, try to have meals with family or friends. It may be helpful to have the radio or television on while you eat. Use low lighting, soft music, brightly colored table settings, or whatever helps you feel good while eating. 5. Keep easy meals in the freezer to use when you feel hungry. If other people offer to cook for you, let them. Don’t be afraid about telling them what you can eat. Keep healthy snacks for nibbling if you get the urge. 6. If you live alone, you might want to look into “Meals on Wheels” to bring food to you. Ask your doctor or local social service agencies about “Meals on Wheels.” This service is available in most cities and towns. 7. Add butter or margarine to your meals. Mix canned cream soups with milk or half-and-half instead of water. Drinking milkshakes between meals may help keep caloric intake high. Add cream sauce or melted cheese to your vegetables. Some people find they can drink large amounts of liquids even when they don’t feel like eating solid foods. If this is the case, take advantage of each glassful by making drinks enriched with powdered milk, yogurt or honey. A weight gain supplement in gel tab form may be a lot easier to manage. It can also help in making you hungry so you want to eat. 8. If the foods you like no longer taste good, try new foods and use different methods of food preparation. 9. Avoid spices and coarse foods such as raw vegetables, dry crackers or nuts. Remember that acidic foods and liquids can cause mouth and throat irritation. As you start to heal from the radiation you may be able to slowly add these types of foods to your diet. In conclusion, be patient and focused on the task at hand. It is a task. Weigh yourself often to keep track of your progress. If you are doing what is suggested and you still are not gaining weight, ask your physician or dietitian for help. Dr Rupinder Bhargava Oncology doctor in Jalandhar
Breast Cancer If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with breast cancer, it's important to understand some basics: What is breast cancer and how does it happen? Usually breast cancer either begins in the cells of the lobules, which are the milk-producing glands, or the ducts, the passages that drain milk from the lobules to the nipple. Less commonly, breast cancer can begin in the stromal tissues, which include the fatty and fibrous connective tissues of the breast. Over time, cancer cells can invade nearby healthy breast tissue and make their way into the underarm lymph nodes, small organs that filter out foreign substances in the body. If cancer cells get into the lymph nodes, they then have a pathway into other parts of the body. The breast cancer’s stage refers to how far the cancer cells have spread beyond the original tumor. Breast cancer is always caused by a genetic abnormality (a “mistake” in the genetic material). However, only 5-10% of cancers are due to an abnormality inherited from your mother or father. Instead, 85-90% of breast cancers are due to genetic abnormalities that happen as a result of the aging process and the “wear and tear” of life in general. There are steps every person can take to help the body stay as healthy as possible, such as eating a balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, limiting alcohol, and exercising regularly. While these may have some impact on your risk of getting breast cancer, they cannot eliminate the risk. Developing breast cancer is not your or anyone's fault. Feeling guilty, or telling yourself that breast cancer happened because of something you or anyone else did, is not productive. Symptoms of Breast Cancer Initially, breast cancer may not cause any symptoms. A lump may be too small for you to feel or to cause any unusual changes you can notice on your own. Often, an abnormal area turns up on a screening mammogram (X-ray of the breast), which leads to further testing. In some cases, however, the first sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast that you or your doctor can feel. A lump that is painless, hard, and has uneven edges is more likely to be cancer. But sometimes cancers can be tender, soft, and rounded. So it's important to have anything unusual checked by your doctor. According to the American Cancer Society, any of the following unusual changes in the breast can be a symptom of breast cancer: • swelling of all or part of the breast • skin irritation or dimpling • breast pain • nipple pain or the nipple turning inward • redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin • a nipple discharge other than breast milk • a lump in the underarm area These changes also can be signs of less serious conditions that are not cancerous, such as an infection or a cyst. It’s important to get any breast changes checked out promptly by a doctor. Breast cancer treatment in Jalndhar
BREAST CANCER The term “breast cancer” refers to a malignant tumour that has developed from cells in the breast. Usually breast cancer either begins in the cells of the lobules, which are the milk-producing glands, or the ducts, the passages that drain milk from the lobules to the nipple. WHAT IS THE TREATMENT ADVOCATED IN STAGE 0 OF BREAST CANCER? If precancerous cells are found within the milk ducts, it’s called non-invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Stage 0 breast cancer can spread beyond the ducts. Lumpectomy plus radiation therapy are sufficient in many cases. In a lumpectomy, the surgeon removes the cancerous cells and spares the rest of the breast. A “simple mastectomy” is the surgical removal of the breast. Surgery to reconstruct the breast can begin at the time of the mastectomy or at a later date. Radiation is a type of targeted therapy. It’s usually recommended following lumpectomy for stage 0 breast cancers. High-energy X-rays are used to destroy cancer cells, prevent them from spreading, and lower risk of recurrence. Your doctor will probably recommend a hormone treatment if you’ve had a lumpectomy for oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) or progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) breast cancer. Oral hormone treatments are generally prescribed to lower your risk of developing invasive breast cancer. Hormone treatment isn’t always prescribed for women who have had a mastectomy for stage 0 breast cancer. Breast cancer Treatment in Jalandhar
Breast Cancer The normal breast consists of milk-producing glands that are connected to the surface of the skin at the nipple by narrow ducts. The glands and ducts are supported by connective tissue made up of fat and fibrous material. Blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic channels to the lymph nodes make up most of the rest of the breast tissue. Breast cancer is an uncontrolled growth of breast cells. It develops in the breast tissue, primarily in the milk ducts (ductal carcinoma) or glands (lobular carcinoma). The tumor may grow and invade tissue around the breast, such as the skin or chest wall. Those cells may also travel to locations in the body where they are not normally found. When that happens, the cancer is called metastatic. 1 in 22 women develop Breast cancer in India. It is the most common cancer in urban areas of India. What Changes I Should Look For ? Changes in the breast size or shape Painless lump in the breast Skin dimpling or puckering Nipple that turn inwards Nipple discharge Swelling in the armpit Breast Cancer Treatment in Jalandhar
What is the prostate? The prostate is an exocrine gland of the male reproductive system, and exists directly under the bladder, in front of the rectum. An exocrine gland is one whose secretions end up outside the body e.g. prostate gland and sweat glands. It is approximately the size of a walnut. The urethra - a tube that goes from the bladder to the end of the penis and carries urine and semen out of the body - goes through the prostate. There are thousands of tiny glands in the prostate - they all produce a fluid that forms part of the semen. This fluid also protects and nourishes the sperm. When a male has an orgasm the seminal-vesicles secrete a milky liquid in which the semen travels. The liquid is produced in the prostate gland, while the sperm is kept and produced in the testicles. When a male climaxes (has an orgasm) contractions force the prostate to secrete this fluid into the urethra and leave the body through the penis. Prostate cancer treatment in Jalandhar Cancer Surgeon in Jalandhar
Types of Breast Cancer Breast cancer occurs when breast cells divide and grow without control, sometimes invading surrounding tissue. In some cases, the cancer may grow very slowly while in others, it develops more rapidly. Most breast cancers start in the ducts while a small number start in the milk sacs or lobes. Breast cancer treatment in Jalandhar Breast cancer can be classified generally as follows : >Non-Invasive Breast Cancer Cancer that is confined to the ducts (Ductal Carcinoma In Situ or DCIS) or lobules (Lobular Carcinoma In Situ or LCIS). DCIS is considered a precancerous condition while LCIS is a risk factor for invasive cancer. >Invasive Cancer Cancer that has spread beyond the ducts or lobes to the surrounding breast tissue. Generally most treatable in the early stage when the tumor is relatively small and has not spread to the lymph nodes. >Metastatic Breast Cancer Cancer that has spread outside the breast to other parts of the body. If cancer cells are detected in the lymph nodes under the arm, it may mean that it has spread to other lymph nodes and organs such as the bones, liver or lungs. Breast Cancer specialist in Jalandhar
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