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Breast Cancer INR   0 INR  0
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Breast Cancer

Cancer has always been considered a disease which strikes you at later stages of your life. This holds true to a certain extent, but if we look at breast cancer, the age at which women develop breast cancer has undergone a sea change in the last two decades. An increasing number of breast cancers are detected in the 25-40 years age group. The age where one settles down, plans to have a family and is busy with raising children. India is now witnessing more and more numbers of patients being diagnosed with breast cancer to be in the younger age groups. What every woman should know Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American women. One in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer during her lifetime. But advances in breast cancer treatment mean many women can expect to beat the disease and maintain their physical appearance. Strand Center studied genes that may increase a women’s risk of suffering from breast cancer. Our scientists have identified 50 mutations (variants of a gene) in genes that are present in the Indian population, which can cause breast cancer. Some of these gene mutations have been identified earlier. Our analysis showed that there are 19 new mutations that have not been identified by other researchers. So, all in all, these gene variations have increased the chances of breast cancer amongst Indian women. Symptoms A lump in the breast Pain in armpits or breast that does not seem to be related to the woman’s menstrual period Pitting or redness of the skin of the breast A rash around (or on) one of the nipples A swelling (lump) in one of the armpits An area of thickened tissue in a breast One of the nipples has a discharge; sometimes it may contain blood The nipple changes in appearance; it may become sunken or inverted The size or the shape of the breast changes The nipple-skin or breast-skin may have started to peel, scale or flake news A successful treatment of cancer is possible, if detected at an early stage. Breast Cancer Specialist in Jalandhar Breast Cancer Treatment in Jalandhar

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ENDOMETRIOSIS

Endometriosis is a painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs. With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other. Endometriosis can cause pain — sometimes severe — especially during your period. Fertility problems also may develop. Fortunately, effective treatments are available. Symptoms The primary symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, often associated with your menstrual period. Although many women experience cramping during their menstrual period, women with endometriosis typically describe menstrual pain that's far worse than usual. They also tend to report that the pain increases over time. Common signs and symptoms of endometriosis may include: • Pelvic pain • Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) • Pain with intercourse • Pain with bowel movements or urination. • Excessive bleeding • Infertility. Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking treatment for infertility. • fatigue • diarrhea • constipation • bloating or nausea, especially during menstrual periods. The severity of your pain isn't necessarily a reliable indicator of the extent of the condition. Some women with mild endometriosis have intense pain, while others with advanced endometriosis may have little pain or even no pain at all. Endometriosis is sometimes mistaken for other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It may be confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that causes bouts of diarrhea, constipation and abdominal cramping. IBS can accompany endometriosis, which can complicate the diagnosis. Causes Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include: • Retrograde menstruation. In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These displaced endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle. • Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what's known as the "induction theory," experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells — cells that line the inner side of your abdomen — into endometrial cells. • Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial cell implants during puberty. • Surgical scar implantation. After a surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision. • Endometrial cells transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body. • Immune system disorder. It's possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that's growing outside the uterus. Risk factors Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as: • Never giving birth • Starting your period at an early age • Going through menopause at an older age • Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days • Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces • Low body mass index • Alcohol consumption • One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis • Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body • Uterine abnormalities Endometriosis usually develops several years after the onset of menstruation (menarche). Signs and symptoms of endometriosis end temporarily with pregnancy and end permanently with menopause, unless you're taking estrogen. Complications • Impaired fertility. Diagnosis • Pelvic exam • Transvaginal ultrasound • Laparoscopy. Treatment • Medications : Pain medications • Hormone therapy • Progestin therapy • Surgery

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Types of Breast Cancer INR   0 INR  0
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Types of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer occurs when breast cells divide and grow without control, sometimes invading surrounding tissue. In some cases, the cancer may grow very slowly while in others, it develops more rapidly. Most breast cancers start in the ducts while a small number start in the milk sacs or lobes. Breast cancer treatment in Jalandhar Breast cancer can be classified generally as follows : >Non-Invasive Breast Cancer Cancer that is confined to the ducts (Ductal Carcinoma In Situ or DCIS) or lobules (Lobular Carcinoma In Situ or LCIS). DCIS is considered a precancerous condition while LCIS is a risk factor for invasive cancer. >Invasive Cancer Cancer that has spread beyond the ducts or lobes to the surrounding breast tissue. Generally most treatable in the early stage when the tumor is relatively small and has not spread to the lymph nodes. >Metastatic Breast Cancer Cancer that has spread outside the breast to other parts of the body. If cancer cells are detected in the lymph nodes under the arm, it may mean that it has spread to other lymph nodes and organs such as the bones, liver or lungs. Breast Cancer specialist in Jalandhar

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Bone And Soft Tissue Sarcomas

Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are the main types of sarcoma. Soft tissue sarcomas can develop from soft tissues like fat, muscle, nerves, fibrous tissues, blood vessels, or deep skin tissues. When the term sarcoma is part of the name of a disease, it means the tumor is malignant (cancer).Bone is living tissue that makes up the body’s skeleton.There are three types of bone tissue, including the following: Compact tissue—the harder, outer tissue of bones. Cancellous tissue—the sponge-like tissue inside bones. Subchondral tissue—the smooth tissue at the ends of bones, which is covered with another type of tissue called cartilage. Cartilage is the specialized, gristly connective tissue that is present in adults, and the tissue from which most bones develop in children.

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Breast Cancer INR   0 INR  0
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Breast Cancer

Early detection of breast cancer is the key to successful treatment of this deadly disease. The following may be warning signs of cancer but they do not always mean rhat cancere is present. If you notice any of the following , call your doctor but preferably a cancer specialist right away; > A firm lump that feels different from the tissue around it. >A change in skin texture or color. >A dimple (skin depression) on breast >A nipple that becomes pulled in (retracted) >Bloody discharge from a nipple. >A change in the size or shape of just one of your breasts.

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TERATOMA

A type of germ cell tumour that may contain several types of body tissue. Teratomas are tumours made up of tissues, such as hair, muscle and bone. They most often occur in the ovaries in women and the testicles in men. They may be benign or malignant. Symptoms vary depending on the location. A painful lump or swelling may be apparent. Some babies have a mass that can be seen on an ultrasound before birth. Treatment often involves surgery. In rare cases when a teratoma is malignant, chemotherapy or radiation may be required.

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