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Dysmenorhea INR   0 INR  0
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Dysmenorhea

Today i want to tell you about a very common problem that is #Dysmenorhea. It is basically the pain a female suffers during her menstrual cycle. It can be of three types; spastic, congestive and triple. Dysmenorhea is a common occurence but what are the alarming signs when you should approach your gynaecologist are- pain that starts prior to starting your bleeding and the pain that continues all throughtout the bleeding days and even after that, the pain that compels you to take intravenous analgesic and a leave from your work. The conditions like pelvic inflammatory disease, fibroid uterus, adenomyosis and endometriosis have to ruled out so that right and timely intervention make you pain free soon. Gynecologist in Jalandhar

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TESTICULAR CANCER

Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination. Symptoms • A n enlarged testicle or a small lump or area of hardness are the first signs of testicular cancer • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts • Back pain Cancer usually affects only one testicle. Causes It's not clear what causes testicular cancer in most cases. Doctors know that testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle become altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes some cells develop abnormalities, causing this growth to get out of control — these cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells form a mass in the testicle. Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't known. Risk factors Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. • Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. • Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. • Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age. • Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy. TESTICULAR CANCER TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR

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Breast Cancer

Cancer has always been considered a disease which strikes you at later stages of your life. This holds true to a certain extent, but if we look at breast cancer, the age at which women develop breast cancer has undergone a sea change in the last two decades. An increasing number of breast cancers are detected in the 25-40 years age group. The age where one settles down, plans to have a family and is busy with raising children. India is now witnessing more and more numbers of patients being diagnosed with breast cancer to be in the younger age groups. What every woman should know Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American women. One in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer during her lifetime. But advances in breast cancer treatment mean many women can expect to beat the disease and maintain their physical appearance. Strand Center studied genes that may increase a women’s risk of suffering from breast cancer. Our scientists have identified 50 mutations (variants of a gene) in genes that are present in the Indian population, which can cause breast cancer. Some of these gene mutations have been identified earlier. Our analysis showed that there are 19 new mutations that have not been identified by other researchers. So, all in all, these gene variations have increased the chances of breast cancer amongst Indian women. Symptoms A lump in the breast Pain in armpits or breast that does not seem to be related to the woman’s menstrual period Pitting or redness of the skin of the breast A rash around (or on) one of the nipples A swelling (lump) in one of the armpits An area of thickened tissue in a breast One of the nipples has a discharge; sometimes it may contain blood The nipple changes in appearance; it may become sunken or inverted The size or the shape of the breast changes The nipple-skin or breast-skin may have started to peel, scale or flake news A successful treatment of cancer is possible, if detected at an early stage. Breast Cancer Specialist in Jalandhar Breast Cancer Treatment in Jalandhar

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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a form of cancer that affects the immune system - specifically, it is a cancer of immune cells called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. There are two broad types of lymphoma and many sub types. ​The two types of lymphoma are described as: Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's. Lymphoma can occur at any age but is the most common cancer in young people. It is often very treatable, and most people live for a long time after being diagnosed. ​Lymphoma is cancer of the lymph system (or lymphatic system), which is part of our immunity. It is characterized by the formation of solid tumors in the immune system.1 The cancer affects immune cells called lymphocytes, which are white blood cells. ​About 90% of lymphomas are the non-Hodgkin's type while about 10% are Hodgkin's. ​Cancer is a group of over 100 diseases, all of which start with the growth of abnormal cells. Instead of dying in the normal cell life cycle, cancerous cells continue to divide into new abnormal cells, and grow out of control. ​Lymphatic cancers are classified by the type of immune cells affected. ​In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, B-cells and T-cells are affected - both being types of lymphocyte white blood cell with special roles in immunity. In the US, B-cell lymphomas are much more common than T-cell ones. ​In Hodgkin's lymphoma, the cancer cells are usually an abnormal type of B lymphocyte, named Reed-Sternberg cells. There are many subtypes of Hodgkin's lymphoma, typed by differences seen under the microscope - but a very high percentage of cases are classed as "classic" Hodgkin' Lymphoma Treatment in Jalandhar Cancer Specialist Doctor in Jalandhar

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Normal Delivery

A vaginal delivery is childbirth that happens when the baby is pushed down the birth canal and delivered through the vagina. Every labor and delivery is different. How long labor and delivery lasts and how it progresses varies depending on previous births, the position of the baby's head, and the size of the baby and the birth canal. There are, however, general stages of labor and delivery that a healthcare provider uses to decide whether it is progressing normally for a vaginal delivery. The 3 stages of labor are: First stage: The cervix opens and thins to full dilation. The average woman in her first labor may dilate about 1 cm per hour during the active phase of labor. If you have had a baby before, the cervix usually dilates faster. Second stage: The baby moves through the birth canal and is born. This stage of labor usually lasts 15 to 75 minutes but may last as long as 2 or 3 hours. Third stage: The placenta (afterbirth) passes through the birth canal and is delivered. This usually happens within 30 minutes after the birth of the baby. Painless delivery gyne hospital in Jalandhar Painless delivery of baby in Jalandhar

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Breast pain

Breast pain (mastalgia) is the most common breast related complaint among women; nearly 70% of women experience breast pain at some point in their lives. Breast pain may occur in one or both breasts or in the underarm (axilla) region of the body. The severity of breast pain varies from woman to woman; approximately 15% of women require treatment. Though breast pain is not normally associated with breast cancer, women who experience any breast abnormalities, including breast pain, should consult their physicians. Breast pain can range from mild to severe. It may occur: Just a few days a month, in the two to three days leading up to your period. This normal, mild-to-moderate pain affects both breasts. A week or longer each month, starting before your period and sometimes continuing through your menstrual cycle. The pain may be moderate or severe, and affects both breasts. Throughout the month, not related to your menstrual cycle. When to see a doctor Make an appointment with your doctor if breast pain: Continues daily for more than a couple of weeks Occurs in one specific area of your breast Seems to be getting worse over time Interferes with daily activities Breast specialist in Jalandhar Breast Treatment in Jalandhar

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ENDOMETRIOSIS

Endometriosis is a painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs. With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other. Endometriosis can cause pain — sometimes severe — especially during your period. Fertility problems also may develop. Fortunately, effective treatments are available. Symptoms The primary symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, often associated with your menstrual period. Although many women experience cramping during their menstrual period, women with endometriosis typically describe menstrual pain that's far worse than usual. They also tend to report that the pain increases over time. Common signs and symptoms of endometriosis may include: • Pelvic pain • Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) • Pain with intercourse • Pain with bowel movements or urination. • Excessive bleeding • Infertility. Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking treatment for infertility. • fatigue • diarrhea • constipation • bloating or nausea, especially during menstrual periods. The severity of your pain isn't necessarily a reliable indicator of the extent of the condition. Some women with mild endometriosis have intense pain, while others with advanced endometriosis may have little pain or even no pain at all. Endometriosis is sometimes mistaken for other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It may be confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that causes bouts of diarrhea, constipation and abdominal cramping. IBS can accompany endometriosis, which can complicate the diagnosis. Causes Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include: • Retrograde menstruation. In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These displaced endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle. • Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what's known as the "induction theory," experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells — cells that line the inner side of your abdomen — into endometrial cells. • Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial cell implants during puberty. • Surgical scar implantation. After a surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision. • Endometrial cells transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body. • Immune system disorder. It's possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that's growing outside the uterus. Risk factors Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as: • Never giving birth • Starting your period at an early age • Going through menopause at an older age • Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days • Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces • Low body mass index • Alcohol consumption • One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis • Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body • Uterine abnormalities Endometriosis usually develops several years after the onset of menstruation (menarche). Signs and symptoms of endometriosis end temporarily with pregnancy and end permanently with menopause, unless you're taking estrogen. Complications • Impaired fertility. Diagnosis • Pelvic exam • Transvaginal ultrasound • Laparoscopy. Treatment • Medications : Pain medications • Hormone therapy • Progestin therapy • Surgery

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THYROID SURGERY (Thyroidectomy) INR   0 INR  0
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THYROID SURGERY (Thyroidectomy)

Thyroidectomy is the removal of all or part of your thyroid gland. Your thyroid is a bilobed gland located in front of your neck. It produces hormones that regulate metabolism, from your heart rate to how quickly you burn calories. Thyroidectomy is operation to treat thyroid disorders, such as cancer, noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid (goiter) and overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism). How much of your thyroid gland is removed during thyroidectomy depends on the reason for surgery. If only a portion is removed (partial thyroidectomy), your thyroid may be able to function normally after surgery. If your entire thyroid is removed (total thyroidectomy), you need daily treatment with thyroid hormone. Why it's done? A thyroidectomy may be recommended for conditions such as: Thyroid cancer. Cancer is the most common reason for thyroidectomy. If you have thyroid cancer, removing most, if not all, of your thyroid will likely be a treatment option. Goitre (Noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid Removing all or part of your thyroid gland is an option if you have a large goitre that is uncomfortable or causes difficulty breathing or swallowing or, in some cases, if the goitre is causing hyperthyroidism. Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. If you have problems with anti-thyroid drugs and don't want radioactive iodine therapy, thyroidectomy may be an option. Risks Thyroidectomy is generally a safe procedure. But as with any surgery, thyroidectomy carries a risk of complications. Potential complications include: Bleeding Infection Airway obstruction caused by bleeding Permanent hoarse or weak voice due to nerve damage Damage to the four small glands located behind your thyroid (parathyroid glands), which can lead to hypoparathyroidism, resulting in abnormally low calcium levels and an increased amount of phosphorus in your blood. What you can expect Before the procedure Surgeons perform thyroidectomy during general anaesthesia. You may have a drain under the incision in your neck. This drain is usually removed the morning after surgery. After a thyroidectomy, you may experience neck pain and temporarily hoarse or weak voice. You'll be able to eat and drink as usual after surgery. Depending on the type of surgery you had, you may be able to go home the day of your procedure or your doctor may recommend you stay overnight in the hospital. When you go home, you can usually return to your regular activities. Wait at least 10 days to two weeks before doing anything vigorous. Results The long-term effects of thyroidectomy depend on how much of the thyroid is removed. Partial thyroidectomy If only part of your thyroid is removed, the remaining portion typically takes over the function of the entire thyroid gland, and you might not need thyroid hormone therapy. Total thyroidectomy If your entire thyroid is removed,you'll need to take a pill every day that contains the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid). This hormone replacement is identical to the hormone normally made by your thyroid gland and performs all of the same functions. Dr Rupinder Bhargava Surgical Oncologist BHARGAVA ADVANCED GYNE SURGERY CANCER CENTRE

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