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TESTICULAR CANCER INR   0 INR  0
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TESTICULAR CANCER

Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination. Symptoms • A n enlarged testicle or a small lump or area of hardness are the first signs of testicular cancer • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts • Back pain Cancer usually affects only one testicle. Causes It's not clear what causes testicular cancer in most cases. Doctors know that testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle become altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes some cells develop abnormalities, causing this growth to get out of control — these cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells form a mass in the testicle. Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't known. Risk factors Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. • Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. • Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. • Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age. • Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy. TESTICULAR CANCER TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR

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PARATHYROID SURGERY INR   0 INR  0
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PARATHYROID SURGERY

Hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid disease caused by a parathyroid tumor resulting in high blood calcium) is easy if you know about the facts and the myths of parathyroid disease and hyperparathyroidism. These are the parathyroid facts There are no drugs that will make parathyroid disease better. Nearly all parathyroid patients have symptoms; 95% know it--and feel bad. Most of the rest just don't know it until the disease is fixed. Symptoms of parathyroid disease do NOT correlate with the level of calcium in the blood. Many patients with only slightly elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone will have BAD symptoms and develop lots of secondary health issues. All patients with parathyroid disease have calcium levels and PTH levels that go up and down. Fluctuating levels of calcium are typical of parathyroid disease. How high the calcium has become has nothing to do with the severity of hyperparathyroidism. It is the duration (in years) that the calcium is high that causes problems. Osteoporosis drugs have no place in the treatment of parathyroid disease. Parathyroid disease is a lethal disease. But just like high cholesterol and high blood pressure, it takes 25 years before it starts killing. There is only one treatment for parathyroid disease (hyperparathyroidism): Surgery to remove the parathyroid tumor The success rate and complication rate for parathyroid surgery is VERY dependent upon the surgeon's experience. PARATHYROID SURGERY TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR

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ENDOMETRIOSIS INR   0 INR  0
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ENDOMETRIOSIS

Endometriosis is a painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs. With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other. Endometriosis can cause pain — sometimes severe — especially during your period. Fertility problems also may develop. Fortunately, effective treatments are available. Symptoms The primary symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, often associated with your menstrual period. Although many women experience cramping during their menstrual period, women with endometriosis typically describe menstrual pain that's far worse than usual. They also tend to report that the pain increases over time. Common signs and symptoms of endometriosis may include: • Pelvic pain • Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) • Pain with intercourse • Pain with bowel movements or urination. • Excessive bleeding • Infertility. Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking treatment for infertility. • fatigue • diarrhea • constipation • bloating or nausea, especially during menstrual periods. The severity of your pain isn't necessarily a reliable indicator of the extent of the condition. Some women with mild endometriosis have intense pain, while others with advanced endometriosis may have little pain or even no pain at all. Endometriosis is sometimes mistaken for other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It may be confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that causes bouts of diarrhea, constipation and abdominal cramping. IBS can accompany endometriosis, which can complicate the diagnosis. Causes Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include: • Retrograde menstruation. In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These displaced endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle. • Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what's known as the "induction theory," experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells — cells that line the inner side of your abdomen — into endometrial cells. • Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial cell implants during puberty. • Surgical scar implantation. After a surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision. • Endometrial cells transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body. • Immune system disorder. It's possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that's growing outside the uterus. Risk factors Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as: • Never giving birth • Starting your period at an early age • Going through menopause at an older age • Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days • Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces • Low body mass index • Alcohol consumption • One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis • Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body • Uterine abnormalities Endometriosis usually develops several years after the onset of menstruation (menarche). Signs and symptoms of endometriosis end temporarily with pregnancy and end permanently with menopause, unless you're taking estrogen. Complications • Impaired fertility. Diagnosis • Pelvic exam • Transvaginal ultrasound • Laparoscopy. Treatment • Medications : Pain medications • Hormone therapy • Progestin therapy • Surgery

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Lung cancer facts INR   0 INR  0
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Lung cancer facts

• Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the India and worldwide. • Cigarette smoking is the principal risk factor for development of lung cancer. • Passive exposure to tobacco smoke also can cause lung cancer. • The two types of lung cancer, which grow and spread differently, are small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). • The stage of lung cancer refers to the extent to which the cancer has spread in the body. •Treatment of lung cancer can involve a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy as well as newer experimental methods. The general prognosis of lung cancer is poor because doctors tend not to find the disease until it is at an advanced stage. Five-year survival is around 54% for early stage lung cancer that is localized to the lungs, but only around 4% in advanced, inoperable lung cancer. • • Smoking cessation is the most important measure that can prevent the development of lung cancer. Lung cancer doctor in Jalandhar • Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as a tumor. • Tumors can be benign or malignant; when we speak of APR 25, 2018 Lung cancer facts • Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the India and worldwide. • Cigarette smoking is the principal risk factor for development of lung cancer. • Passive exposure to tobacco smoke also can cause lung cancer. • The two types of lung cancer, which grow and spread differently, are small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). • The stage of lung cancer refers to the extent to which the cancer has spread in the body. •Treatment of lung cancer can involve a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy as well as newer experimental methods. The general prognosis of lung cancer is poor because doctors tend not to find the disease until it is at an advanced stage. Five-year survival is around 54% for early stage lung cancer that is localized to the lungs, but only around 4% in advanced, inoperable lung cancer. • • Smoking cessation is the most important measure that can prevent the development of lung cancer. Lung cancer doctor in Jalandhar • Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as a tumor. • Tumors can be benign or malignant; when we speak of "cancer, " we are referring to those tumors that are malignant. Benign tumors usually can be removed and do not spread to other parts of the body. Lung cancer Treatment in Jalandhar

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THYROID SURGERY (Thyroidectomy) INR   0 INR  0
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THYROID SURGERY (Thyroidectomy)

Thyroidectomy is the removal of all or part of your thyroid gland. Your thyroid is a bilobed gland located in front of your neck. It produces hormones that regulate metabolism, from your heart rate to how quickly you burn calories. Thyroidectomy is operation to treat thyroid disorders, such as cancer, noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid (goiter) and overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism). How much of your thyroid gland is removed during thyroidectomy depends on the reason for surgery. If only a portion is removed (partial thyroidectomy), your thyroid may be able to function normally after surgery. If your entire thyroid is removed (total thyroidectomy), you need daily treatment with thyroid hormone. Why it's done? A thyroidectomy may be recommended for conditions such as: Thyroid cancer. Cancer is the most common reason for thyroidectomy. If you have thyroid cancer, removing most, if not all, of your thyroid will likely be a treatment option. Goitre (Noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid Removing all or part of your thyroid gland is an option if you have a large goitre that is uncomfortable or causes difficulty breathing or swallowing or, in some cases, if the goitre is causing hyperthyroidism. Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. If you have problems with anti-thyroid drugs and don't want radioactive iodine therapy, thyroidectomy may be an option. Risks Thyroidectomy is generally a safe procedure. But as with any surgery, thyroidectomy carries a risk of complications. Potential complications include: Bleeding Infection Airway obstruction caused by bleeding Permanent hoarse or weak voice due to nerve damage Damage to the four small glands located behind your thyroid (parathyroid glands), which can lead to hypoparathyroidism, resulting in abnormally low calcium levels and an increased amount of phosphorus in your blood. What you can expect Before the procedure Surgeons perform thyroidectomy during general anaesthesia. You may have a drain under the incision in your neck. This drain is usually removed the morning after surgery. After a thyroidectomy, you may experience neck pain and temporarily hoarse or weak voice. You'll be able to eat and drink as usual after surgery. Depending on the type of surgery you had, you may be able to go home the day of your procedure or your doctor may recommend you stay overnight in the hospital. When you go home, you can usually return to your regular activities. Wait at least 10 days to two weeks before doing anything vigorous. Results The long-term effects of thyroidectomy depend on how much of the thyroid is removed. Partial thyroidectomy If only part of your thyroid is removed, the remaining portion typically takes over the function of the entire thyroid gland, and you might not need thyroid hormone therapy. Total thyroidectomy If your entire thyroid is removed,you'll need to take a pill every day that contains the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid). This hormone replacement is identical to the hormone normally made by your thyroid gland and performs all of the same functions. Dr Rupinder Bhargava Surgical Oncologist BHARGAVA ADVANCED GYNE SURGERY CANCER CENTRE

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Radical Hysterectomy INR   0 INR  0
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Radical Hysterectomy

Radical Hysterectomy surgery at Bhargava Hospital Advanced Gyne Surgery Cancer Center includes removal of the uterus, tubes and ovaries of both the sides (ovaries may be spared in young women), upper half of vagina , parametric (most of cardinal and uterosacral ligaments) and the draining primary cervical lymph nodes ( parametric ), obturator, internal and external iliac groups , and sometimes common iliac. Sacral group is not removed . Parametric lymph node is sampled and sent for frozen section biopsy , radiation therapy is to be considered if lymph nodes found involved. Radical Hysterectomy surgery in Jalandhar Radical Hysterectomy Doctor in Jalandhar

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Thoracic Oncology INR   0 INR  0
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Thoracic Oncology

Dr. Rupinder BHargava primarily treats patients with all thoracic malignancies such as tumours of the lung, oesophagus, mediastinum and chest wall. Dr. Rupinder Bhargava who has special training in operating on tumors found inside the chest. It also serves patients with pulmonary metastases from other cancers. Many patients require multidisciplinary treatment. Based on the topmost available evidence, the patient is offered surgery (including minimal invasive surgery to improve operative outcomes) or a combination of chemotherapy/radiation therapy and surgery. In the near future, patients will also be able to participate in clinical trials.

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Head & Neck Oncology INR   0 INR  0
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Head & Neck Oncology

Commando's operation Hemiglossectomy Laryngectomy Total Thyroidectomy / Parathyroid Surgery Neck Dissections Reconstruction / Rotation, Free Flaps Superficial & Total Parotidectomy Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts within the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands. Symptoms may include a lump or sore that does not heal, a sore throat that does not go away, trouble swallowing, or a change in the voice. There may also be unusual bleeding, facial swelling, or trouble breathing.

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