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TESTICULAR CANCER INR   0 INR  0
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TESTICULAR CANCER

Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination. Symptoms • A n enlarged testicle or a small lump or area of hardness are the first signs of testicular cancer • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum • A dull ache in the abdomen or groin • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts • Back pain Cancer usually affects only one testicle. Causes It's not clear what causes testicular cancer in most cases. Doctors know that testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle become altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes some cells develop abnormalities, causing this growth to get out of control — these cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells form a mass in the testicle. Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't known. Risk factors Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. • Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. • Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. • Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age. • Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. Diagnosis In some cases men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: • Ultrasound. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as whether the lumps are solid or fluid-filled. An ultrasound also tells your doctor whether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. • Blood tests Type of cancer Your extracted testicle will be analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of testicular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: • Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas. • Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly. Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Blood tests. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to III, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the area around the testicle. By stage III, the cancer is considered advanced and may have spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs. Treatment The options for treating testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health. • Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. • Surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's sometimes used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. • Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Side effects of chemotherapy are depend on the specific drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include • Fatigue, nausea, hair loss and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy may also lead to infertility in some men, which can be permanent in some cases. Talk to your doctor about your options for preserving your sperm before beginning chemotherapy. TESTICULAR CANCER TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR

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Cervical cancer starts with a virus: HPV (human papillomavirus). INR   0 INR  0
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Cervical cancer starts with a virus: HPV (human papillomavirus).

The HPV test can identify high-risk HPV before cancer develops. 💥Know the Facts: HPV + Your Health💥: • The human papillomavirus (HPV) is transmitted through sexual intercourse or direct genital contact with an infected partner. • Even if you’re not currently infected with the virus, chances are you have been. An estimated 75 to 80 percent of adults (men and women) have had the virus by the time they are 50. • Most of the time, your immune system fights off the virus just as it does a cold or flu virus. In fact, 75 to 90 percent of HPV infections disappear within a year. • High-risk HPV infections do not cause symptoms, and cervical cancer often does not cause symptoms until it is at a very advanced stage. • High-risk HPV can only be detected with an HPV test. What does a positive HPV test result mean? • First, it does not mean you have cervical cancer. • If your Pap test is normal but you have HPV, your health care provider canmonitor you so that any cell changes can be caught early, before they causeproblems. • If you test positive for HPV two times in a row, even if your Pap test is normal, you will need additional tests. • While there is no way to get rid of the virus itself, the abnormal cells can betreated, preventing them from becoming cancerous. Preventing Cervical Cancer: An Ages and Stages Guide Protect yourself against cervical cancer by knowing which prevention strategy to choose and when. Here’s a quick look: HPV Vaccine: • Highly effective in protecting against the most common types of HPV that cause 70 percent of cervical cancer. • Recommended for girls ages 11 and 12, although it is approved for girls and young women ages 9 to 26. Ideally, the vaccine should be given before a girl or woman becomes sexually active. Pap Test: • Evaluates cells from the cervix for abnormalities, including precancerous and cancerous changes. • Women 21 and older should have Pap tests regularly. HPV Test: • Detects the high-risk types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer before cervical disease or cancer develops. • When combined with a Pap test, the HPV test is better at identifying women at risk for developing cervical cancer than the Pap test alone. • Recommended for women 30 years of age and older. Identifying the virus in younger women wouldn’t be helpful because HPV is so common and cervical cancer so rare in younger women. If you are age 30 or older, schedule your HPV test today! Cancer Specialist In Jalandhar Best Oncologist in Jalandhar

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CERVICAL CANCER INR   0 INR  0
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CERVICAL CANCER

WHAT IS CERVICAL CANCER? Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. Cancer is always named for the part of the body where it starts, even if it spreads to other body parts later. When cancer starts in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus. The cervix connects the vagina (the birth canal) to the upper part of the uterus. The uterus (or womb) is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. Cervical cancer is the easiest gynecologic cancer to prevent with regular screening tests and follow-up . It also is highly curable when found and treated early. WHO GETS CERVICAL CANCER? All women are at risk for cervical cancer. It occurs most often in women over age 30. Each year, approximately 12, 000 women in the United States get cervical cancer. The human papilla virus (HPV)is the main cause of cervical cancer.HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another during sex. At least half of sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their lives, but few women will get cervical cancer. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS? Early on, cervical cancer may not cause signs and symptoms. Advanced cervical cancer may cause bleeding or discharge from the vagina that is not normal for you, such as bleeding after sex.If you have any of these signs, see your doctor. They may because by something other than cancer, but the only way to know is to see your doctor. Are there tests that can prevent cervical cancer or find it early ? There are two tests that can either help prevent cervical cancer or find it early: The Pap test(or Papsmear)looks for pre cancers, cell changes, on the cervix that can be treated, so that cervical cancer is prevented.The Pap test also can find cervical cancer early, when treatment is most effective .The Pap test is recommended for women aged 21-65 years old. The Paptest only screens for cervical cancer .It does not screen for any other gynecologic cancer. The HPV test looks for HPV—the virus that can cause precancerous cell changes and cervical cancer. CERVICAL CANCER TREATMENT IN JALANDHAR Thursday | 26 April, 2018 | 05:19 PM preview HEAVY PERIODS Many women think that heavy periods are a normal fact of life – ‘my mum suffered it and I am suffering it’ therefore it is considered a normal part of womanhood. Heavy periods are very common in women, and usually are not a sign of anything serious – but they can cause a big disruption to your life. Heavy periods can cause tiredness from low iron in the blood, or less commonly, anemia (low red blood cells). Best lady gynecologist hospital in Jalandhar DO YOU FIND HEAVY PERIODS A PROBLEM? You may find it hard to judge whether your periods are heavy. Even talking to friends about it may not help. Women often have different ideas about what it means to have heavy periods. Here's a list of things that may mean your periods are heavy. >You use more than nine pads or tampons (or both pads and tampons) on your heaviest days. >You have to wear both a tampon and a pad (double protection). >Your period lasts more than six days. >You have to get up at night to change your protection. >You pass clots of blood. >You stain your bedding or clothes despite wearing tampons and pads. >You stay at home during your period because you are worried about having an 'accident'. >You feel tired, especially during your period. This could mean your body is low on iron. Doctors call this anemia. It happens when your body is not able to make enough new red blood cells to make up for blood you lost during your period. Your doctor can find out if you have anemia by testing a sample of your blood. If your red cell count is low, you may need treatment, such as iron tablets, to help you make more red cells. Best gyne hospital in Jalandhar

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THYROID SURGERY (Thyroidectomy) INR   0 INR  0
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THYROID SURGERY (Thyroidectomy)

Thyroidectomy is the removal of all or part of your thyroid gland. Your thyroid is a bilobed gland located in front of your neck. It produces hormones that regulate metabolism, from your heart rate to how quickly you burn calories. Thyroidectomy is operation to treat thyroid disorders, such as cancer, noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid (goiter) and overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism). How much of your thyroid gland is removed during thyroidectomy depends on the reason for surgery. If only a portion is removed (partial thyroidectomy), your thyroid may be able to function normally after surgery. If your entire thyroid is removed (total thyroidectomy), you need daily treatment with thyroid hormone. Why it's done? A thyroidectomy may be recommended for conditions such as: Thyroid cancer. Cancer is the most common reason for thyroidectomy. If you have thyroid cancer, removing most, if not all, of your thyroid will likely be a treatment option. Goitre (Noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid Removing all or part of your thyroid gland is an option if you have a large goitre that is uncomfortable or causes difficulty breathing or swallowing or, in some cases, if the goitre is causing hyperthyroidism. Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. If you have problems with anti-thyroid drugs and don't want radioactive iodine therapy, thyroidectomy may be an option. Risks Thyroidectomy is generally a safe procedure. But as with any surgery, thyroidectomy carries a risk of complications. Potential complications include: Bleeding Infection Airway obstruction caused by bleeding Permanent hoarse or weak voice due to nerve damage Damage to the four small glands located behind your thyroid (parathyroid glands), which can lead to hypoparathyroidism, resulting in abnormally low calcium levels and an increased amount of phosphorus in your blood. What you can expect Before the procedure Surgeons perform thyroidectomy during general anaesthesia. You may have a drain under the incision in your neck. This drain is usually removed the morning after surgery. After a thyroidectomy, you may experience neck pain and temporarily hoarse or weak voice. You'll be able to eat and drink as usual after surgery. Depending on the type of surgery you had, you may be able to go home the day of your procedure or your doctor may recommend you stay overnight in the hospital. When you go home, you can usually return to your regular activities. Wait at least 10 days to two weeks before doing anything vigorous. Results The long-term effects of thyroidectomy depend on how much of the thyroid is removed. Partial thyroidectomy If only part of your thyroid is removed, the remaining portion typically takes over the function of the entire thyroid gland, and you might not need thyroid hormone therapy. Total thyroidectomy If your entire thyroid is removed,you'll need to take a pill every day that contains the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid). This hormone replacement is identical to the hormone normally made by your thyroid gland and performs all of the same functions. Dr Rupinder Bhargava Surgical Oncologist BHARGAVA ADVANCED GYNE SURGERY CANCER CENTRE

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Gynae-oncology INR   0 INR  0
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Gynae-oncology

Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system, including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer. As specialists, they have extensive training in the diagnosis and treatment of these cancers. The gynaecological oncology covers systematic reviews in the following topic areas: • Uterine cervix • Body of uterus • Vagina/fallopian tube • Ovary • Chorioncarcinoma • Vulva • Prevention • Screening for pre-malignant changes • Strategies for early detection of cancer • Treatment of early disease • Treatment of late disease

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